Statistics


All results shown on this page are to be understood as intermediate results and do not represent final results of the ongoing study.

Overview: Study

96%
of all fingerprints are
unique
5.0
weeks of recognition
in average
45%
of all participants have
only unique fingerprints
1683
registered participants
from 41 countries all over the world
16250
distinct fingerprints
have been collected until now
19.9
weeks of participation
in average

Recognizability: Most stable fingerprint per participant

In the following evaluations, only participants are considered that participated at least 4 weeks in the study.

Most stable fingerprint per participant in weeks

Based on n=1654 participants (98.3% of total participants).
Most stable fingerprint per participant in weeks navg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
total16545.06.30012246914

Most stable fingerprint per participant by device type in weeks

Based on n=1597 participants (94.9% of total participants), where 1278 are desktop devices and 319 are mobile devices.
Most stable fingerprint per participant by device type in weeks navg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
desktop devices12785.16.10012346914
mobile devices3195.77.201123471016

Most stable fingerprint per participant by gender in weeks

Based on n=1563 participants (92.9% of total participants), where 1210 are male and 353 are female.
Most stable fingerprint per participant by gender in weeks navg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
male12105.06.20012246914
female3535.76.900123571016

Recognizability: Most stable desktop-device fingerprint per participant

Most stable desktop fingerprint per participant in weeks

Based on n=1532 participants (91.0% of total participants).
Most stable desktop fingerprint per participant in weeks navg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
total15325.36.400123471015

Most stable desktop fingerprint per participant by gender in weeks

Based on n=1456 participants (86.5% of total participants), where 1140 are male and 316 are female.
Most stable desktop fingerprint per participant by gender in weeks navg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
male11405.26.200123461015
female3166.17.001223571116

Recognizability: Most stable mobile-device fingerprint per participant

Most stable mobile fingerprint per participant in weeks

Based on n=671 participants (39.9% of total participants).
Most stable mobile fingerprint per participant in weeks navg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
total6716.57.101234681217

Most stable mobile fingerprint per participant by gender in weeks

Based on n=633 participants (37.6% of total participants), where 483 are male and 150 are female.
Most stable mobile fingerprint per participant by gender in weeks navg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
male4836.46.801234681217
female1507.27.901235791318

Course of study

Study timeline

Distribution of number of fingerprints amongst participants

Based on n=1654 participants (98.3% of total participants).
navg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
Fingerprints per participant165411.114.2233568111726

Overview: Participants

96.4%
of the study participants took part in a voluntary survey after their registration
90.7%
of the study participants answered all questions on age, gender, occupation, and education
80.9%
of the study participants answered all questions of the voluntary survey

Demographic overview

After the participants have confirmed their email address, they were asked to voluntarily answer a survey. The survey includes questions about their computer science background and their demographic information as well as questions that should help us to understand how the participants think about privacy and which privacy measures they already use in their browsers.

Age of participants

Based on n=1526 participants (90.7% of total participants), where 1173 are male participants and 353 are female participants.
Age of participantsnavg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
male participants117338.914.5242628313439465361
female participants35339.614.0242628313644495458
total152639.114.3242628313540475360

Occupation of participants

Based on n=1526 participants (90.7% of total participants), where 1173 are male participants and 353 are female participants.

Education of participants

Based on n=1526 participants (90.7% of total participants), where 1173 are male participants and 353 are female participants.

Privacy Behavior Index

Based on n=1526 participants (90.7% of total participants), where 1173 are male participants and 353 are female participants.

The number of "yes" answers per participant regarding the questions on already used in-browser privacy measures and privacy-enhancing browser extensions (items), see below, are shown summed up by gender in the following chart.

Privacy Behavior Indexnavg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
male participants11736.92.83456788911
female participants3534.32.4123445568
total15266.32.93455678910

Security and privacy background of participants

Total participants of the survey (n=1623)Computer science-related participants (n=939)Non-CS-related participants (n=667)
Questionyesnon/ayesnon/ayesnon/a
Have you heard about browser fingerprinting before participating in this study?67%33%0%81%19%0%47%53%0%

In-browser privacy measures used by participants

Total participants of the survey (n=1623)Computer science-related participants (n=939)Non-CS-related participants (n=667)
usednever useddon't known/ausednever useddon't known/ausednever useddon't known/a
Delete cookies94%4%1%0%96%3%0%0%92%5%2%0%
Private browsing / incognito mode82%14%3%1%91%7%1%0%72%23%5%1%
Deny third-party cookies79%14%6%0%84%12%3%1%73%16%10%0%
Do not track66%24%8%1%76%19%4%1%55%31%14%1%
Tor / Tor Browser43%50%6%1%56%41%3%0%25%64%10%1%
due to rounding, percentages may not sum up exactly to 100

Privacy-enhancing browser extensions used by participants

Total participants of the survey (n=1623)Computer science-related participants (n=939)Non-CS-related participants (n=667)
usednever useddon't known/ausednever useddon't known/ausednever useddon't known/a
Ad blocker82%14%2%1%88%10%1%1%75%21%4%1%
NoScript50%43%5%1%62%35%2%1%34%56%9%1%
Ghostery39%53%5%2%47%48%2%2%29%62%8%1%
HTTPS Everywhere32%60%5%2%42%54%2%2%19%71%9%1%
uBlock19%72%6%2%27%68%4%2%9%81%9%1%
Better Privacy17%74%6%2%20%73%4%3%13%77%9%1%
Disconnect13%76%7%2%16%76%5%2%10%78%10%2%
Privacy Badger13%78%6%2%17%76%4%3%6%83%9%1%
due to rounding, percentages may not sum up exactly to 100

Westin Privacy Index

Within our survey, we asked our participants to indicate how much they agree with three privacy-related statements. This set of statements goes back to Alan Westin and is intended to calculate the so-called Westin Privacy Index. Depending on how the participants agreed with these statements, they are categorized as pragmatic, fundamentalistic, or unconcerned in the context of (consumer) privacy.
For more information, see P. Kumaraguru & L. F. Cranor.
Total participants of the survey (n=1623)Computer science-related participants (n=939)Non-CS-related participants (n=667)
Privacy fundamentalists59%59%61%
Privacy pragmatists36%37%36%
Privacy unconcerned2%3%2%
n/a2%2%1%
due to rounding, percentages may not sum up exactly to 100

Selected browser characteristics of collected fingerprints

2288
distinct user agents have been collected until now
68%
of all user agents are unique amongst all participants
53%
of the participants had at least one unique set of HTTP-based features

Distribution of fingerprints by device type

Uniqueness of fingerprints by device type

Browsers

Operating systems

Number of installed plugins

navg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
Number of plugins162514.34.90001355712

Number of supported MIME types

navg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
Number of MIME types1625128.149.5002467215383

Number of installed fonts

navg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
Number of fonts16251169.4157.7142972109173197233257301