Statistics


All results shown on this page are to be understood as intermediate results and do not represent final results of the ongoing study.

Overview: Study

96%
of all fingerprints are
unique
5.1
weeks of recognition
in average
43%
of all participants have
only unique fingerprints
2071
registered participants
from 64 countries all over the world
24450
distinct fingerprints
have been collected until now
29.9
weeks of participation
in average

Recognizability: Most stable fingerprint per participant

In the following evaluations, only participants are considered that participated at least 4 weeks in the study.

Most stable fingerprint per participant in weeks

Based on n=1660 participants (80.2% of total participants).
Most stable fingerprint per participant in weeks navg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
total16605.16.50012246915

Most stable fingerprint per participant by device type in weeks

Based on n=1605 participants (77.5% of total participants), where 1284 are desktop devices and 321 are mobile devices.
Most stable fingerprint per participant by device type in weeks navg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
desktop devices12845.16.40012346914
mobile devices3215.97.401123571016

Most stable fingerprint per participant by gender in weeks

Based on n=1569 participants (75.8% of total participants), where 1215 are male and 354 are female.
Most stable fingerprint per participant by gender in weeks navg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
male12155.16.40012246915
female3545.77.000123571016

Recognizability: Most stable desktop-device fingerprint per participant

Most stable desktop fingerprint per participant in weeks

Based on n=1539 participants (74.3% of total participants).
Most stable desktop fingerprint per participant in weeks navg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
total15395.46.600123471015

Most stable desktop fingerprint per participant by gender in weeks

Based on n=1463 participants (70.6% of total participants), where 1145 are male and 318 are female.
Most stable desktop fingerprint per participant by gender in weeks navg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
male11455.36.500123461015
female3186.17.101223571116

Recognizability: Most stable mobile-device fingerprint per participant

Most stable mobile fingerprint per participant in weeks

Based on n=681 participants (32.9% of total participants).
Most stable mobile fingerprint per participant in weeks navg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
total6816.67.301234681217

Most stable mobile fingerprint per participant by gender in weeks

Based on n=643 participants (31.0% of total participants), where 492 are male and 151 are female.
Most stable mobile fingerprint per participant by gender in weeks navg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
male4926.47.101234681217
female1517.48.101235791319

Course of study

Study timeline

Distribution of number of fingerprints amongst participants

Based on n=2040 participants (98.5% of total participants).
navg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
Fingerprints per participant204013.618.12345710142134.5

Overview: Participants

96.3%
of the study participants took part in a voluntary survey after their registration
89.3%
of the study participants answered all questions on age, gender, occupation, and education
79.3%
of the study participants answered all questions of the voluntary survey

Demographic overview

After the participants have confirmed their email address, they were asked to voluntarily answer a survey. The survey includes questions about their computer science background and their demographic information as well as questions that should help us to understand how the participants think about privacy and which privacy measures they already use in their browsers.

Age of participants

Based on n=1849 participants (89.3% of total participants), where 1460 are male participants and 389 are female participants.
Age of participantsnavg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
male participants146038.314.4232628313438455360
female participants38939.414.0242628313544495359
total184938.514.3232628313439465360

Occupation of participants

Based on n=1849 participants (89.3% of total participants), where 1460 are male participants and 389 are female participants.

Education of participants

Based on n=1849 participants (89.3% of total participants), where 1460 are male participants and 389 are female participants.

Privacy Behavior Index

Based on n=1849 participants (89.3% of total participants), where 1460 are male participants and 389 are female participants.

The number of "yes" answers per participant regarding the questions on already used in-browser privacy measures and privacy-enhancing browser extensions (items), see below, are shown summed up by gender in the following chart.

Privacy Behavior Indexnavg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
male participants14607.12.835567891011
female participants3894.42.5123445568
total18496.53.03456678911

Security and privacy background of participants

Total participants of the survey (n=1994)Computer science-related participants (n=1168)Non-CS-related participants (n=802)
Questionyesnon/ayesnon/ayesnon/a
Have you heard about browser fingerprinting before participating in this study?68%31%0%81%19%0%50%50%0%

In-browser privacy measures used by participants

Total participants of the survey (n=1994)Computer science-related participants (n=1168)Non-CS-related participants (n=802)
usednever useddon't known/ausednever useddon't known/ausednever useddon't known/a
Delete cookies93%5%1%1%95%4%0%1%91%6%2%0%
Private browsing / incognito mode83%13%2%1%91%7%1%1%73%21%4%1%
Deny third-party cookies79%14%6%1%84%12%3%1%74%16%9%1%
Do not track68%23%7%1%76%19%4%1%58%29%13%1%
Tor / Tor Browser45%48%5%1%57%40%3%1%29%60%9%1%
due to rounding, percentages may not sum up exactly to 100

Privacy-enhancing browser extensions used by participants

Total participants of the survey (n=1994)Computer science-related participants (n=1168)Non-CS-related participants (n=802)
usednever useddon't known/ausednever useddon't known/ausednever useddon't known/a
Ad blocker82%14%2%1%87%11%1%1%76%20%3%1%
NoScript50%43%4%1%61%35%2%2%36%55%8%1%
Ghostery40%52%4%2%47%48%3%2%31%60%7%2%
HTTPS Everywhere36%56%5%2%46%50%2%2%23%67%8%1%
uBlock24%68%5%2%31%64%3%2%14%76%8%1%
Better Privacy17%73%6%3%20%73%4%3%14%76%8%2%
Privacy Badger16%74%6%2%21%73%4%3%11%79%8%2%
Disconnect16%74%6%2%18%75%4%3%13%76%9%2%
due to rounding, percentages may not sum up exactly to 100

Westin Privacy Index

Within our survey, we asked our participants to indicate how much they agree with three privacy-related statements. This set of statements goes back to Alan Westin and is intended to calculate the so-called Westin Privacy Index. Depending on how the participants agreed with these statements, they are categorized as pragmatic, fundamentalistic, or unconcerned in the context of (consumer) privacy.
For more information, see P. Kumaraguru & L. F. Cranor.
Total participants of the survey (n=1994)Computer science-related participants (n=1168)Non-CS-related participants (n=802)
Privacy fundamentalists60%60%61%
Privacy pragmatists35%36%36%
Privacy unconcerned2%2%2%
n/a2%2%2%
due to rounding, percentages may not sum up exactly to 100

Selected browser characteristics of collected fingerprints

3145
distinct user agents have been collected until now
67%
of all user agents are unique amongst all participants
56%
of the participants had at least one unique set of HTTP-based features

Distribution of fingerprints by device type

Uniqueness of fingerprints by device type

Browsers

Operating systems

Number of installed plugins

navg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
Number of plugins244503.44.50001135510

Number of supported MIME types

navg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
Number of MIME types2445021.344.500024573268

Number of installed fonts

navg.SD σp quantile
p=0.1p=0.2p=0.3p=0.4p=0.5p=0.6p=0.7p=0.8p=0.9
Number of fonts24450163.0162.714266098167183223252297